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Buxa Tiger Reserve


Prelims: Environment (Tiger Reserves), Buxa Tiger Reserve, Tiger reserves, Tiger

Mains: General Studies-III, Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.

Why in the News ?

The Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal celebrated a significant ecological milestone as a ‘resident tiger’ was spotted after 40 years, marking a crucial development in wildlife conservation efforts.

Source: TOI

Key Facts 🗝️

  • India is home to 75% of the world’s tiger population. As per the latest report on the Status of Tigers in India, the tiger count in the country has surged to 3,167 as of 2022.
  • Project Tiger is an ongoing centrally sponsored program of the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change that provides government assistance to tiger states for tiger conservation in designated tiger reserves

📌 FYI on Prelims:

  • Protected areas in West Bengal: Gorumara, Sundarbans, Neora Valley, Singalila, Jaldapara, Sundarban Tiger Reserve, Mayurjharna Elephant Reserve, and Eastern Dooars Elephant Reserve.
  • A ‘resident tiger’: A tiger that establishes its territory and habitat within a specific area for an extended period. This term is often used in wildlife conservation to denote a tiger that consistently resides and breeds within a particular region, indicating the presence of a stable population within that ecosystem.


  • Buxa Tiger Reserve

    • It spans 760 square kilometres in North Bengal’s Alipurduar district and is a vital component of the larger tiger territory stretching into Bhutan. 
    • It boasts corridor connectivity with forests in Bhutan to the North, Kochugaon and Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam to the East, and Jaldapara National Park to the West, facilitating the migration and genetic diversity of Bengal tigers.
    • The Tiger Augmentation Project launched in 2018 aims to monitor and boost the tiger population. Other protected areas in West Bengal include Gorumara, Sundarbans, Neora Valley, Singalila, Jaldapara, Sundarban Tiger Reserve, Mayurjharna Elephant Reserve, and Eastern Dooars Elephant Reserve.
  • Tiger Reserves:

    • A protected area designated for the conservation of the tigers is referred to as Tiger Reserve.
      • tiger reserve may also be a national park or wildlife sanctuary.
      • Eg: The Sariska Tiger Reserve is also a national park. It is so because the place was originally created as a national park and later dedicated to tiger conservation.
    • Tiger Reserves are notified by State Governments as per provisions of Section 38V of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 on advice of the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
    • Presently, India accommodates a total of 54 Tiger Reserves (with the most recent addition being the Veerangana Durgavati Tiger Reserve)


  • Scientific Name: Panthera tigris
  • Indian Sub Species: Panthera tigris tigris.
  • Habitat:
    • Its habitat stretches from Siberian temperate forests to subtropical and tropical forests on the Indian subcontinent and Sumatra.
    • It is the largest cat species and a member of the genus Panthera.
    • Traditionally eight subspecies of tigers have been recognized, out of which three are extinct.
      • Bengal Tigers: Indian Subcontinent
      • Caspian tiger: Turkey through central and west Asia (extinct).
      • Amur tiger: Amur Rivers region of Russia and China, and North Korea
      • Javan tiger: Java, Indonesia (extinct).
      • South China tiger: South central China.
      • Bali tiger: Bali, Indonesia (extinct).
      • Sumatran tiger: Sumatra, Indonesia.
      • Indo-Chinese tiger: Continental south-east Asia.
  • Threats:
    • Habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching.
  • Protection Status:
    • Wildlife Protection Act 1972 – Sch 1
    • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): Endangered.
    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Appendix I.


Prelims: PYQ/FAQ

 Q. Consider the following protected areas: (2012)

  1. Bandipur
  2. Bhitarkanika
  3. Manas
  4. Sunderbans

Which of the above are declared Tiger Reserves?

(a) 1 and 2 only 
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only 
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: b. 1, 3 and 4 only 

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