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India’s Semiconductor Landscape



Science & Technology- Semiconductors


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Why in the News ?

The recent endorsement by the Union Cabinet of three chip-related projects, collectively valued at approximately Rs 1.26 lakh crore, has captured significant attention. A notable highlight is the proposal to establish what could potentially be India’s inaugural semiconductor fabrication plant. This collaborative effort, led by the Tata Group in conjunction with a Taiwanese technology partner, marks a significant milestone in India’s technological journey, aiming to bolster the nation’s semiconductor manufacturing capabilities.

Source: Indian Express

Key Facts 🗝️

  • Materials Used: Silicon, gallium arsenide, and germanium.
  • Leading Countries: The US, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and China.


What is a Semiconductor?

A semiconductor is a material characterized by its electrical conductivity, which falls between that of conductors and insulators. Unlike conductors, which facilitate the flow of electric current, and insulators, which impede it, semiconductors demonstrate variable conductivity influenced by factors like temperature, voltage, and impurities.

Features of Semiconductors:

  • Conductivity: Semiconductors exhibit controllable conductivity, subject to external factors such as temperature, voltage, and impurities.
  • Band Gap: The band gap, determining the electrical properties of semiconductors, refers to the energy difference between the valence and conduction bands.
  • Doping: Impurities intentionally introduced into semiconductors during the doping process modify their electrical conductivity.

Basic Components of Semiconductors:

  • N-Type Semiconductor: Doped with impurities to introduce excess electrons into the crystal lattice.
  • P-Type Semiconductor: Doped with impurities to create “holes” in the crystal lattice.

Usage of Semiconductors:

  • Electronics: Semiconductors form the foundation of electronic devices, including transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits (ICs).
  • Solar Cells: Utilized in photovoltaic cells to convert solar energy into electrical power.
  • Optoelectronics: Employed in LEDs and laser diodes for lighting, displays, and communication.
  • Power Electronics: Essential for power electronic devices such as rectifiers, inverters, and voltage regulators.

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