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OpenAI : Sora


Prelims: Science and Technology (Emerging trend), OpenAI, Sora, ChatGPT, Generative Artificial Intelligence (GenAI), DALL-E, Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPTs).

Mains: General Studies-III Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.

Why in the News ?

OpenAI, the creator of the revolutionary chatbot ChatGPT has unveiled a new generative artificial intelligence (GenAI) model that can convert a text prompt into video, an area of GenAI that was thus far fraught with inconsistencies.

Source: IE 

📌 FYI on Prelims:


  • DALL-E is a text-to-image model developed by OpenAI (introduced in January 2021) that creates digital images from natural language descriptions.
  • DALL·E can generate imagery in multiple styles, including photorealistic imagery, paintings, and emoji.
  • It can also manipulate and rearrange objects in its images, and can correctly place design elements in novel compositions without explicit instruction.
  • It can also animate a static image, transforming it into a dynamic video presentation.


  • Sora:

    • Sora is an AI model developed by OpenAI –– built on past research in DALL·E and GPT models –– and can generate videos based on text instructions.
    • Sora can create full videos in one go or add more to already created videos to make them longer.
    • It can produce videos up to one minute in duration, ensuring high visual quality and accuracy.
    • Features:
      • Sora can generate complex scenes with various characters, precise actions, and detailed backgrounds.
      • Not only does the model understand the user’s instructions, but it also interprets how these elements would appear in real-life situations.
      • It is capable of generating compelling characters that express vibrant emotions.
      • Sora can also create multiple shots within a single generated video that accurately persist characters and visual style.
    • Shortcomings of the model:
      • It may struggle with accurately simulating the physics of a complex scene, and may not understand specific instances of cause and effect.
      • For example, a person might take a bite out of a cookie, but afterward, the cookie may not have a bite mark.
  • OpenAI

    • Establishment: December 2015 as a non-profit AI research organisation whose goal was to develop “artificial general intelligence,” or AGI.
      • AGI is essentially software that is as smart as humans.
    • The organisation said it wanted to ensure that AGI benefits all of humanity and no big tech company, like Google, would master the technology and monopolise its benefits.
    • Founding members: Among its founding members were Altman, Brockman, Reid Hoffman, the co-founder of LinkedIn, Amazon Web Services, Infosys, right-wing tech billionaire Peter Thiel and Elon Musk.
    • The evolution: Around two years after its inception, OpenAI released a report titled ‘Improving Language Understanding by Generative Pre-Training.’
    • This introduced the idea of Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPTs).
      • GPTs are a type of large language model (LLM) that use transformer neural networks to generate human-like text.
      • GPTs are trained on large amounts of unlabelled text data from the internet, enabling them to understand and generate coherent and contextually relevant text.
      • They can be fine-tuned for specific tasks like: Language generation, Sentiment analysis, Language modelling, Machine translation, Text classification.
      • GPTs use self-attention mechanisms to focus on different parts of the input text during each processing step.
      • This allows GPT models to capture more context and improve performance on natural language processing (NLP) tasks.
        • NLP is the ability of a computer program to understand human language as it is spoken and written — referred to as natural language.
  • ChatGPT

    • ChatGPT is a state-of-the-art natural language processing (NLP) model developed by OpenAI.
    • It is a variant of the popular GPT-3 (Generative Pertained Transformer 3) model, which has been trained on a massive amount of text data to generate human-like responses to a given input.
    • The answers provided by this chatbot are intended to be technical and free of jargon.
    • It can provide responses that sound like human speech, enabling natural dialogue between the user and the virtual assistant.
  • Generative AI, or generative artificial intelligence:

    • Form of artificial intelligence (AI) in which algorithms automatically produce content in the form of text, images, audio, and video.
    • Generative AI is powered by foundation models (large AI models) that can multi-task and perform out-of-the-box tasks, including summarization, Q&A, classification, and more. 
    • These systems have been trained on massive amounts of data.
    • It works by using a Machine Learning (ML) model to learn the patterns and relationships in a dataset of human-created content. It then uses the learned patterns to generate new content. 
    • Typically, it starts with a simple text input, called a prompt, in which the user describes the output they want. Then, various algorithms generate new content according to what the prompt is asking for.
    • Bard, ChatGPT are popular Generative AI tools.


Prelims: PYQ/FAQ

Q. With the present state of development, Artificial Intelligence can effectively do which of the following? (2020)

  1. Bring down electricity consumption in industrial units
  2. Create meaningful short stories and songs
  3. Disease diagnosis
  4. Text-to-Speech Conversion
  5. Wireless transmission of electrical energy

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 2, 3 and 5 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2, 4 and 5 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Ans: b. 1, 3 and 4 only

Explaination :

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions.
  • Artificial Intelligence has various applications in today’s society. in multiple industries, such as Healthcare, entertainment, finance, education, etc.
  • AI has been used in disease diagnosis, creating songs like ‘I am AI’ and ‘Daddy’s Car’ and creating short stories and fictions. AI has been used in Text -to -speech conversion, e.g. Cerewave AI.
  • Artificial Intelligence has also found use in power industry, e.g. Machine -learning assisted power transfer (based on AI) using magnetic resonance and AI used for energy efficiency. Hence all the options are correct.

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