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Understanding the Impact of Internet Shutdowns: A Comparative Analysis of Manipur and Kashmir

Internet shutdowns have become a recurrent issue in certain regions of India, particularly in Manipur and Kashmir. These shutdowns have significant implications for the affected communities, ranging from disruptions in communication to economic losses. In this article, we explore the reasons behind internet shutdowns in Manipur and Kashmir, compare their impacts, and discuss the broader consequences of such restrictions on fundamental rights and development.

Source: The post is based on the article Manipur internet shutdowns: Forgetting the lessons from Kashmir”  published in Indian Express on 29th July 2023.

The Rise of Internet Shutdowns

Internet shutdowns have emerged as a common response by governments to control information flow and prevent potential unrest in certain regions. In India, internet shutdowns are imposed under Section 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, granting authorities the power to impose restrictions on communication networks in the name of maintaining law and order.

Internet Shutdowns
Source: Image by pikisuperstar on Freepik

Manipur: The Impact of Disrupted Connectivity

Manipur, a state in northeastern India, has experienced multiple instances of internet shutdowns. These shutdowns have been enforced during times of social and political unrest, particularly in response to protests or violent incidents. The impact of internet shutdowns in Manipur includes:

  • Communication Disruptions: Shutting down the internet restricts people from communicating with each other, leading to difficulties in accessing essential services and contacting family and friends.
  • Economic Losses: The shutdowns have severe economic repercussions, affecting businesses, freelancers, and e-commerce activities that heavily rely on internet connectivity.
  • Educational Disruptions: Students face challenges in accessing online education resources, which has become especially crucial during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Kashmir: The Longest Internet Shutdown in History

Kashmir, a region with a history of political turmoil, has witnessed extended and prolonged internet shutdowns. One such instance was the shutdown in August 2019 following the abrogation of Article 370, which granted special status to Jammu and Kashmir. The consequences of internet shutdowns in Kashmir include:

  • Information Blackout: The shutdowns lead to an information blackout, making it difficult for people to access news, updates, and emergency services.
  • Social and Economic Isolation: The restrictions disrupt trade, tourism, and other economic activities, leading to social and economic isolation.
  • Educational Crisis: Students face severe difficulties in pursuing online education, impacting their academic progress.
  • Mental Health Impact: The prolonged shutdowns contribute to increased stress and anxiety among the residents, affecting their mental well-being.

Broader Consequences: Implications for Fundamental Rights and Development

Internet shutdowns have far-reaching consequences that go beyond immediate disruptions. They pose significant challenges to:

  • Freedom of Expression: Restricting internet access hinders people’s right to express themselves, access information, and participate in public discourse.
  • Right to Privacy: Shutdowns can be used as a tool for mass surveillance and infringe upon individuals’ right to privacy.
  • Economic Development: The disruptions caused by internet shutdowns impede economic growth, affecting businesses, startups, and employment opportunities.
  • Social Development: Limited access to information and communication affects social development and the exchange of knowledge and ideas.

The Need for a Balanced Approach

While internet shutdowns may be imposed with the intention of maintaining law and order, their impact on fundamental rights and development cannot be ignored. A balanced approach is necessary to address security concerns without compromising people’s rights and economic opportunities. Some measures to achieve this balance include:

  • Transparency: Governments should provide clear and transparent reasons for imposing shutdowns and their expected duration.
  • Judicial Review: There should be judicial oversight to assess the necessity and proportionality of internet shutdowns.
  • Alternative Measures: Authorities should explore alternative means of maintaining law and order without resorting to blanket internet shutdowns.


Internet shutdowns in Manipur and Kashmir highlight the complexities and consequences of restricting access to communication networks. While governments may impose shutdowns to address security concerns, the impact on fundamental rights, economic activities, and social development cannot be overlooked. Striking a balance between security needs and safeguarding people’s rights is essential in the digital age. Transparent policies and judicial oversight can help ensure that internet shutdowns are used sparingly and responsibly, respecting the rights and development aspirations of the affected communities.

Source: IE

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) – Internet Shutdowns in Manipur and Kashmir

1. What are internet shutdowns in Manipur and Kashmir?

Internet shutdowns are temporary restrictions imposed by the government on internet connectivity in certain regions to control information flow and maintain law and order.

2. Why are internet shutdowns imposed in Manipur and Kashmir?

Internet shutdowns are enforced in response to social and political unrest, protests, or violent incidents in both Manipur and Kashmir.

3. What is the impact of internet shutdowns in Manipur?

The impact of internet shutdowns in Manipur includes communication disruptions, economic losses, educational disruptions, and difficulties in accessing essential services.

4. What was the longest internet shutdown in Kashmir?

The longest internet shutdown in Kashmir occurred in August 2019 following the abrogation of Article 370, which granted special status to Jammu and Kashmir.

5. What are the consequences of internet shutdowns in Kashmir?

The consequences of internet shutdowns in Kashmir include an information blackout, social and economic isolation, educational crises, and adverse effects on mental health.

6. What are the broader implications of internet shutdowns?

Internet shutdowns have broader implications on fundamental rights, such as freedom of expression and right to privacy, as well as economic and social development.

7. How do internet shutdowns affect economic development?

Internet shutdowns impede economic development by disrupting businesses, startups, employment opportunities, and trade activities.

8. What measures can be taken to achieve a balanced approach?

Some measures to achieve a balanced approach regarding internet shutdowns include transparency in reasons and expected duration, judicial oversight, and exploring alternative security measures.

9. Why is a balanced approach necessary for internet shutdowns?

A balanced approach is essential to address security concerns without compromising fundamental rights, economic opportunities, and social development.

10. How can transparency be ensured in internet shutdowns?

Governments should provide clear and transparent reasons for imposing shutdowns and communicate the expected duration to the public.

11. What is the role of judicial review in internet shutdowns?

Judicial oversight ensures that internet shutdowns are necessary, proportionate, and in line with the law, protecting people’s rights.

12. Can alternative measures be used instead of internet shutdowns?

Authorities should explore alternative means of maintaining law and order without resorting to blanket internet shutdowns, to minimize their impact on communities.

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