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CMS COP14: Draft Resolution for Conservation of Hawksbill Turtle & Angelshark Adopted


Prelims: Env – Species Conservation Hawksbill Turtle, Angelshark
Mains: General Studies 3- Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.

Why in News 

The 14th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS COP14) on February 14 adopted the Single Species Action Plan for conservation of the Hawksbill Turtle and Angelshark in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific Ocean Region.

 Key Facts 

  • Hawkbill turtle IUCN – Critically Endangered
  • Angelshark IUCN – Critically Endangered
  • Both Species under Appendix 1 of CMS listed species
Angel Shark | File:Source


  • Hawksbill sea turtle

    • Maturation is slow and is estimated between 25 – 40 years
    • Habitat : nest on insular and mainland sandy beaches throughout the tropics and subtropics
    • Found in : species is migratory in nature and nesting occurs in about 70 countries across the world, In India they are found in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the coast of Tamil Nadu and Orissa 
    • Threats :
      • shell trade
      • slaughter for meat
      • oil pollution
      • destruction of nesting and foraging habitats
      • Hybridisation of Hawksbills with Other Species
    • Entanglement – including Fishing Gear.
  • Angelshark :    

    • They commonly inhabit sandy seabeds close to 150 m in depth. 
    • Habitat –  Once common over large areas of the Northeast Atlantic from Norway, Sweden, Morocco and the Canary Islands, to the Mediterranean and Black Seas, fishing pressure has resulted in significant population decline.
    • Breathing : Angelsharks have a unique way of breathing compared to most other benthic fish. They use gill flaps located under their body to pump out water during respiration.
    • Protection : UK government afforded the angel shark full protection under the Wildlife and Countryside Act.
    • Threats :
      • Destruction of Habitats
      • Bottom Trawling

Source: DTE

UPSC CSE Question/PYQ’s


Q. Consider the following statements: (2019)

  1. Some species of turtles are herbivores.
  2. Some species of fish are herbivores.
  3. Some species of marine mammals are herbivores.
  4. Some species of snakes are viviparous.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only 
(c) 2 and 4 only 
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Explaination :

  • Green sea turtles are adapted to the mostly vegetarian diet of sea grasses and algae. As adults, these are the only predominantly herbivorous sea turtles, although they are carnivorous from hatching until juvenile size. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • Surgeonfish and parrotfish are two species of fish often seen feeding on reef algae. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • Manatees, sometimes called sea cows, are large mammals that live in the warm sea waters. They live in shallow coastal areas and feed on sea vegetation. Hence, statement 3 is correct.
  • Snakes that are viviparous nourish their young ones through a placenta and yolk sac. Boa constrictors and green anacondas are two examples of viviparous snakes.  


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